Anal fissure as the name suggests, is a condition of the skin that leads to its cracking or tearing near the rectal or anal area. The skin around the anus gets sore when a person suffers from anal fissure. Pain and bleeding while bowel movements accompany anal fissure. Bowel movement is controlled by the anal muscle. When the anal muscle tightens, the blood supply to the anus gets restricted. This causes anal fissure. Constipation, digestion problems, certain life threatening diseases like HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis can possibly cause anal fissure.
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Lateral internal sphincterotomy and Fissurectomy are 2 methods to treat the condition of anal fissure.
Fissurectomy is recommended by doctors, if they think patient could develop an inability to control gas or passing stools after undergoing sphincterotomy. Incontinence happens even when the patient is diabetic or suffering from an irritable bowel syndrome. In fissurectomy, the doctor removes all the affected skin surrounding the rectum damaged by the fissure. The fissure then heals on its own in due course of time.
Fissurectomy is usually done under general anaesthesia which relaxes the patient as he/she is asleep during the procedure. Its important to be on an empty stomach atleast 6 hours prior to the surgery. The patient sometimes is asked to wear compression stockings to avoid blood clots in the legs. The patient can return home the same day.
It is completely fine if the anus feels sore post the surgery. Also, post surgery, the doctor may prescribe laxatives for preventing constipation. Intake of paracetamol or any such over-the-counter painkillers for pain relief are fine. It is necessary that the patient increases intake of fiber in his/her diet through fiber supplements and consumption of whole grain cereals, fiber rich vegetables like peas, potatoes, carrots. Consumption of water and fluids also reduces chances of constipation.